Imidacloprid

Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide: it is absorbed by the plant through the roots and thus offers reliable protection from within. This substance, which is related to nicotine, works in a targeted way against damaging insects that feed or suck on the treated plant - particularly during the early stages of growth. Imidacloprid has a wide range of uses – soil, seed and foliar. It is used to control sucking insects such as rice-, leaf- and plant hoppers, aphids, thrips and whitefly. It is also effective against soil insects, termites and some species of biting insects, such as rice water weevil and Colorado beetle but has no effect on nematodes or spider mites. It can be used as seed dressing, as soil treatment and as foliar treatment in different crops including rice, cotton, cereals, maize, sugar beet, potatoes, vegetables, citrus fruit, apples and pears, and stone fruit.

Imidacloprid is supplied as a topical solution that collects in the oils of the skin and in hair follicles. It is not absorbed into the body and does not circulate through the blood stream. The effects of imidacloprid last about 30 days and remain effective after bathing or swimming, though shampooing should be avoided within 48 hours of application. Fleas are rapidly killed by imidacloprid: Between 98 and 100 percent of fleas die within 12 hours of treatment. Reinfesting fleas are killed within 2 hours.

When a flea is exposed to imidacloprid on a treated pet, the compound is absorbed through the insect's intersegmental membrane. Here, the compound comes into contact with the flea's nervous system. Imidacloprid then acts inside the synapse of the insect to disrupt transmission of the nervous impulse. Imidacloprid binds to post-synaptic nicotinic receptor sites inside the synapse, essentially "locking" the receptor in the open position thus hyperstimulating the cell. As this occurs throughout the nervous system, it leads to death of the insect. Furthermore, imidacloprid is highly selective in its activity. It only binds to insect nicotinic receptor sites, showing virtually no affinity for mammalian receptor sites. As an analogy, one may think of a lock and key, where the insect nicotinic receptor site is the lock and imidacloprid is the key. Imidacloprid only "fits" the right "lock," and does not fit similar receptor sites found in mammals.

Flea larvae live in the dog's environment on bedding, carpeting and anywhere the dog regularly sleeps or plays. By killing flea larvae in the dog's environment, imidacloprid kills potentially re-infesting fleas at the source, before they have a chance to reproduce to infest the pet and the home. This larvicidal activity in the environment, combined with the rapid adulticidal activity on the pet, eliminates existing flea infestations quickly and prevents new ones from developing, all without the use of environmental foggers, sprays, or insect growth regulators.

Imidacloprid works differently to other insecticides presently being marketed (i.e. carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids). The mode of action is based on interference of the transmission of impulses in the nerve system of insects. Similar to the naturally occurring signal-transmitting acetylcholine, imidacloprid stimulates certain nerve cells by acting on a receptor protein. In contrast to acetylcholine, which is quickly degraded by the enzyme acetylcholine-esterase, imidacloprid is inactivated either very slowly or not at all. It has both contact and ingestion activity. The target pest’s feeding activity ceases within minutes to hours, and death occurs usually within 24 - 48 hours but can take up to 7 days depending on the mode of application. As to its performance: good reliable control, high selectivity, quick knock-down/protection and long residual activity are key features.

The biological spectrum of imidacloprid covers a broad range of target pests, such as:
sucking insects: aphids, whiteflies, leaf- and planthoppers, thrips, scales, mealy bugs, bugs, psyllids, phylloxera;
coleoptera (beetles): leaf beetles (e.g. Colorado potato beetle, rice water weevil), wireworms, grubs, flea beetles;
others: lepidopterous leaf-miners, some dipterous pests, termites, locusts, and fleas.

CAS No.: 138261-41-3
Molecular formula: C9H10ClN5O2
Specifications: 97% TC, 95% TC, 75% DF, 70% WP, 70% WDG, 70% WS, 20% SL, 25% EC, 25% WP