Fumaric acid is unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that melts at 287. Maleic acid, or cis -butenedioic acid, is a geometric isomer of fumaric acid; it melts at about 140. Of the two isomers fumaric acid is the more stable and can be prepared from maleic acid by heating it. Fumaric acid is an organic (carbon-containing) food acid. It is one of the most common acids found in nature where it acts as a key ingredient in organic acid biosynthesis (the Krebs cycle). It can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose. It is found in small amounts in a variety of plants and is essential to the respiration of animal and vegetable tissue. This chemical is used as a substitute for tartaric acid in beverages and baking powder. It is used as a mordant in dyeing and in the manufacture of synthetic resins and polyhydric alcohols.
Functions and Applications
This product is added to a variety of foods as an acidifier, curing accelerator and flavoring agent. Specific applications include leavened breads, unleavened breads, refrigerated doughs, rye breads, fruit juice drinks, pie fillings, poutry, and wine. Fumaric acid can take the place of cream of tartar in chemically leavened breads and can reduce the mixing requirements for yeast doughs. The salts of Fumaric acid (in the form of sodium, potassium, and magnesium salts) help slow down the rates at which yeast bread goes stale. Fumaric acid can be used as pharmaceutical intermediate and optical bleaching agent. In pharmaceutical industry, it is used to produce alexipharmic sodium dimercaptosuccinate and ferrous fumarate. Fumaric acid is also used in manufacturing unsaturated polyester resin. In pastry doughs where layers of butter or shortening are interspersed between sheets of dough, Fumaric acid can assist proper dough expansion by regulating the rate at which the dough produces carbon dioxide. In rye breads,
Fumaric acid provides instant sour flavoring. For refrigerated doughs containing the phosphates, Fumaric acid helps prevent the formation of crystals. Fumaric acid can also be used as intermediate for dyes, lacquers, photographic, chemicals, alkyd resins, plasticizer, vehicle water, cooling systems and coatings.
CAS Number: 110-17-8
Chemical Formula: C4H4O4
Molecular Weight 116.07