Enzymes are biological catalysts produced by all living things. The enzyme named xylanase deconstructs plant structural material by breaking down hemicellulose, a major component of the plant cell wall. Plant cell walls are necessary to prevent dehydration and maintain physical integrity. They also act as a physical barrier to attack by plant pathogens. In nature, some plant consumers or pathogens use xylanase to digest or attack plants. Many microorganisms produce xylanase, but mammals do not. Some herbivorous insects and crustaceans also produce xylanase.
The Xylanase enzyme (Endo-1,4-Beta-xylanase, or XYNII, EC 18.104.22.168) from Trichoderma sp has a pI of 9.0 and is produced by fermentation. Xylanase consists of 190 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 21 kD. Xylanases belong to the glucanase enzyme family and are characterized by their ability to break down various xylans to produce short-chain xylo-oligosaccharides. Xylanase readily crystallizes in ammonium sulfate and sodium/potassium phosphate across pH 3.5 to 9.0. Xylanase can also be crystallized with other salts, polymers, and organic solvents. Xylanase solubility increases with increasing temperature in moderate concentrations of ammonium sulfate. Xylanase solubility in phosphate pH 9 decreases in the temperature range of 0 to 10 degrees Celsius but remains constant in the range of 10 through 37 degrees Celsius. Xylanase has been extracted from many different fungi and bacteria. It is commonly used in animal feeds, paper production, and food production.
Xylanase has proven useful in many ways:
Biobleaching paper pulp. The use of xylanase leads to a reduction in organo-chlorine pollutants such as dioxin from the paper making process. In addition, chlorine-free bleaching (such as peroxide or ozone bleaching) can achieve brighter results with the addition of xylanase. Because xylanase does not harm cellulose, the strength of the paper product is not adversely affected.
Improving animal feed. Adding xylanase stimulates growth rates by improving digestibility, which also improves the quality of the animal litter. Xylanase thins out the gut contents and allows increased nutrient absorption and increased diffusion of pancreatic enzymes in the digesta. It also changes hemicellulose to sugars so that nutrients formerly trapped within the cell walls are released.
Improving silage (or enhanced fermentative composting). Treatment of forages with xylanase (along with cellulase) results in better quality silage and improves the subsequent rate of plant cell wall digestion by ruminants. There is a considerable amount of sugar sequestered in the xylan of plant biomass. In addition to converting hemicellulose to nutritive sugar that the cow or other ruminant can digest, xylanase also produces compounds that may be a nutritive source for the ruminal microflora.