Calcium gluconate is a calcium salt of gluconic acid that may be used to replenish calcium in the body. Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance. Calcium can also bind to other minerals (such as phosphate) and aid in their removal from the body. Calcium gluconate is used as an antidote. This provide extra calcium ions which can scavenge free fluorine ions before they penetrate and damage tissue. In cases of skin contact, calcium gluconate gel must be applied immediately to the area of contact. In cases where systemic damage is a risk, calcium gluconate is administered by a healthcare professional in an IV. Because of its high resorbility it is part of several calcium supplements for regulation of the blood calcium level.
Calcium is essential for the maintenance of the functional integrity of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems, and cell-membrane and capillary permeability. This cation is an important activator in many enzymatic reactions and is essential to a number of physiologic processes including the transmission of nerve impulses; contraction of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles; renal function; respiration; and blood coagulation. Calcium also plays a regulatory role in the release and storage of neurotransmitters and hormones, in the uptake and binding of amino acids, in cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption and in gastrin secretion.
The calcium of bone is in a constant exchange with the calcium of plasma. Since the metabolic functions of calcium are essential for life, when there is a disturbance in the calcium balance because of dietary deficiency or other causes, the stores of calcium in bone may be depleted to fill the body's more acute needs. Therefore, on a chronic basis, normal mineralization of bone depends on adequate amounts of total body calcium.
To increase the intake of calcium it is also added in beverages, fruit juices and dietetic foodstuffs. Calcium gluconate - a salt D(-)gluconic acid - is prepared by fermentation of pure glucose and additional neutralization with lime or calcium carbonate. D(-) gluconic acid occurs naturally as a main metabolism product by decomposition of glucose in foodstffs as wine or honey. Calcium gluconate has a better reabsorption by oral applications or by injection than other calcium salts.
Calcium gluconate is used to treat conditions arising from calcium deficiencies such as hypocalcemic tetany, hypocalcemia related to hypoparathyrodism and hypocalcemia due to rapid growth or pregnancy. It is also used in the treatment of black widow spider bites to relieve muscle cramping and as an adjunct in the treatment of rickets, osteomalacia, lead colic and magnesium sulfate overdosage. Calcium gluconate has also been employed to decrease capillary permeability in allergic conditions, nonthrombocytopenic purpura and exudative dermatoses such as dermatitis herpetiformis and for pruritus of eruptions caused by certain drugs. In hyperkalemia, calcium gluconate may aid in antagonizing the cardiac toxicity provided the patient is not receiving digitalis therapy.
Calcium gluconate is a fine, white, odourless powder or white granular. It is not toxic and physiologically excellent compatible.
CAS Number: 299-28-5
Chemical Formula: C12H22O14Ca·H2O
Specifications: Calcium gluconate is supplied in accordance to the requirements of (among others) the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and the US Pharmacopoeia (USP) always in its latest version.