Choline chloride is the most widely used and most economical form of choline for supplementing animal feeds. Natural levels within feedstuffs are highly variable and bioavailability may be unpredictable, hence the need for supplementation.
Choline is a member of the B-complex group of water soluble vitamins. It is an essential factor in the normal development and health of animals and is necessary for maximum growth of most animals. As a part of the molecular structure of phospholipids, it is concerned with the mobilization of fat in the body. In the absence of choline there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. In conjunction with certain other dietary factors, choline will prevent the occurrence of perosis (slipped tendon) in chicks and turkeys. Choline is involved in the composition of the lecithin molecule. It is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, sphyngomyelins and glycine. Choline is essential for the formation of acetylcholine, a compound which makes possible the transmission of nerve impulses. As a donor of methyl groups for transmethylation reactions, choline plays an important role in many physiological processes. Choline can supply methyl groups to homocysteine for the formation of methionine. In poultry, the deficiency is characterized by a fatty degeneration of the liver, a reduced growth rate, perosis, and in mature birds, a decrease in egg production and hatchability. In swine, a deficiency results in a reduced growth rate, uncoordinated movements, reduced number of total and live pigs per litter, fatty degeneration of the liver and kidney damage.
Corn and other grains are poor sources of this vitamin. For this reason, practical diets for poultry and swine must be supplemented with choline. The most common source of choline for poultry and swine diets is choline chloride. The dietary requirement of poultry and swine for choline depends upon such factors as the growth rate, rate of egg production, nutrient composition of the diet, environmental factors and daily feed intake.
Choline chloride is mainly used to stimulate the growth of the domestic animals, boosting up the body's immunity function. It has prominence effects on improving the quality and quantity of egg and meat. The many years' application shows that the product is the necessary additive of the domestic animals' foodstuff. Choline is one of the vitamins, and is the main components of lecithin. The young poultry is not of the ability of synthesizing choline. All the necessity relies on the supply of food. Though food in nature is not lacking of the choline, the applying of the choline chloride will guarantee the rapid growth of the animals.