D-glucarate is the anionic form of D-glucaric acid, a dicarboxylic sugar acid derived from the oxidation of D-gluconic acid. It is naturally found in some vegetables and fruits, including cruciferous vegetables, bean sprouts and apples. D-glucarate may have cancer-chemopreventive activity. D-glucarate is also known as D-saccharate. D-glucarate, in the form of its calcium salt, calcium D-glucarate, is marketed as a nutritional supplement. The molecular formula of calcium D-glucarate is C6H8C9O8, and its molecular weight is 248.20 daltons.
Calcium D-Glucarate combines the benefits of Calcium along with Vitamin D, both of which work synergistically to provide optimal support for bones and teeth. Vitamin D is one of the primary regulators of calcium absorption, which is important for proper bone health and development Calcium: Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Average healthy males have about two and a half to three pounds of calcium while females have about two pounds. Approximately 99 percent of calcium is present in the bones and teeth, which leaves only about one percent in cells and body fluids. While the most important function of calcium involves the maintenance of skeletal health, the small percentage of calcium outside the bones is used to maintain a variety of vital body functions. Vitamin D: Vitamin D is known as the ?sunshine? vitamin because it is formed in the body by the action of the sun?s ultraviolet rays on the skin. The fat-soluble vitamin is converted in the kidneys to the hormone calcitrol, which is actually the most active form of vitamin D. The effects of this hormone are targeted at the intestines and bones. Vitamin D is important for the growth and development of bones and teeth.
Calcium D-glucarate has been shown to inhibit beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme found in certain bacteria that reside in the gut. One of the key ways in which the body eliminates toxic chemicals as well as hormones such as estrogen is by attaching glucuronic acid to them in the liver and then excreting this complex in the bile. Beta-glucuronidase is a bacterial enzyme that uncouples (breaks) the bond between the excreted compound and glucuronic acid. When beta-glucuronidase breaks the bond, the hormone or toxic chemical that is released is available to be reabsorbed into the body instead of being excreted. An elevated beta-glucuronidase activity is associated with an increased risk for various cancers, particularly hormone-dependent cancers like breast, prostate, and colon cancers.
D-glucarate functions by inhibiting the dangerous beta-glucuronidase enzyme, thus protecting the critical “glucuronidation” detoxification mechanism. One example of the importance of glucuronidation can be seen in the risk factors for breast cancer. Excess levels of free estrogens and the beta-glucuronidase enzyme are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer. The beta-glucuronidase enzyme is associated with an increase in the number of estrogen receptors. D-glucarate has been shown to lower estrogen receptors while reducing tumor growth. When breast cells hyper-proliferate in response to excess estrogen stimulation, the risk of breast cancer increases. In men, excess estrogen stimulation in the prostate gland can result in benign enlargement. D-glucurate suppresses the “bad” enzyme beta-glucuronidase, thus helping to protect against the carcinogenic effects of estrogen. This discovery helps explain why those who eat certain types of vegetables and fruits have relatively low rates of cancer.
The mechanism of D-glucarate's possible anticarcinogenic activity is not entirely clear. One possibility is the inhibition of beta-glucuronidase via the D-glucarate derivative D-glucaro-1, 4-lactone (1, 4-GL). A major mechanism for the detoxification of certain carcinogens is via glucuronidation, which is catalyzed by glucuronyl transferase. The glucuronide conjugates are excreted in the urine and bile. However, deconjugation can occur via the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Inhibition of beta-glucuronidase prevents deconjugation. D-glucarate may have anticarcinogenic activity independent of 1, 4-GL. D-glucarate has been demonstrated to inhibit protein kinase, and this is a possible mechanism for a direct anticarcinogenic effect of the substance.