Phosphatidylserine (Phosphatidyl Serine)
Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid that is a structural component of biological membranes of plants, animals and other life forms. Phosphatidylserine was first isolated from brain lipids called cephalins. The major cephalins are phosphatidylserine and phophatidylethanolamine. Another major phospholipid found in egg yolks and soya is phosphatidylcholine, also known, chemically, as lecithin. Phosphatidylserine is also isolated from soya and egg yolks.
Phosphatidylserine is made up of a glycerophosphate skeleton linked to two fatty acid molecules and the amino acid L-serine. It is an amphiphilic molecule because it is made up of the lipophilic fatty acid tails on one side and the hydrophilic head group containing phosphate and serine on the other side of the molecule. Phosphatidylserine is located in the internal layers of biologic membranes, facing the cytoplasm with its polar head group. In animal tissues, phosphatidylserine is formed from phosphatidylethanolamine by exchange of the ethanolamine head for L-serine. Phosphatidylethanolamine itself is synthesized from diacylglycerol and CDP-ethanolamine.
Phosphatidylserine is known chemically as 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-(3)-L-phosphoserine. It is abbreviated as Ptd Ser, Acyl2 Gro PSer and PS. Most commonly, it is called phosphatidylserine or PS. PS is essential to the healthy functioning of the human brain where it affects an assortment of nerve cell functions, including: conduction of nerve impulses; accumulation, storage and release of neurotransmitters; the activity and number of receptors involved in synaptic discharge; and the biological maintenance of cellular "housekeeping" functions.
Supplementation of the diet with PS has been proven to slow, halt, or in many cases, even reverse cognitive degeneration due to Age-Related Cognitive Decline (ARCD), and dementing illnesses like Alzheimer's disease. PS has been scientifically established to be among the most effective substances to consistently result in dramatic cognitive improvements and enhancements of other higher brain functions. PS is extremely bioavailable and crosses the blood-brain barrier with ease. Once in the brain, the PS molecule as a unit merges smoothly into the nerve cell membrane where it is available to facilitate cell-level energy and homeostasis, as well as enhance neurotransmitter production, release, and action. PS also serves as a precursor reservoir for the related phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine.
Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a phospholipid that forms an essential part of every human cell, but it's particularly concentrated in the membranes of nerve cells. Since the electronic messages that communicate and regulate every aspect of our lives travel along nerve cell membranes, the structural integrity of these membranes is imperative to our health. The nerve cell membrane is the site where molecules of sodium and potassium exchange electrons, causing the electrical impulse to be generated. This bio-electric current then travels along the membrane to trigger the release of neurotransmitters. These are the chemical messengers that cross synapses (gaps between nerve cells) to relay information to neighboring nerve cells. This sets other electrical currents in motion?along thousands of other nerve cells. This happens billions of times each second, and is how the brain and nerves coordinate and communicate with the rest of the body. PS has a very important function in the nerve cell membrane. As a key bio-structural molecule, PS provides vital support for the membrane proteins that enable nerve cells to communicate and grow.