Clindamycin hydrochloride is the hydrated hydrochloride salt of clindamycin. Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent compound lincomycin. Clindamycin is an antibiotic of the “lincosamide” class and possesses similar properties to its sister compound “lincomycin.” It interferes with the production of proteins that the bacteria need to multiply and divide. This inhibits the ability of the bacteria to grow (bacteriostatic) and therefore stops the spread of the infection. Clindamycin has a similar range of antibacterial activity to the penicillins and is useful as an alternative antibiotic in those people who are allergic to penicillins or for infections caused by bacteria called staphylococci that have become resistant to penicillin. In addition it is active against anaerobes (bacteria that are able to live and grow in the absence of free oxygen).
The lincosamide antibiotics seem to be most useful against the bacteria classified as Gram positive cocci (classified thus based on their shape and cell wall properties). Clindamycin is also helpful against protozoans such as Toxoplasma and Mycoplasma as well as many anaerobic (growing without oxygen) bacteria. Concentrations of clindamycin in the serum increased linearly with increased dose. Serum levels exceed the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses. Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). The average biological half-life is 2.4 hours. Approximately 10% of the bioactivity is excreted in the urine and 3.6% in the feces; the remainder is excreted as bioinactive metabolites.
The use of clindamycin hydrochloride has often been associated with severe colitis and profuse diarrhea; if this condition occurs, the drug should be discontinued. Clindamycin hydrochloride is indicated in the treatment of susceptible anaerobic organisms. A topical preparation is also available for the treat- ment of acne.
Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin). Clindamycin Hydrochloride is active in vitro and in vivo against most aerobic gram-positive cocci and several anaerobic and microaerophilic gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. In vitro Clindamycin inhibits all P. acnes cultures tested. Clindamycin may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal in action, depending on the concentration of the drug attained at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the infecting organism. Combination of Clindamycin Hydrochloride and Metronidazole demonstrates a potent bactericidal action on Propionibacterium acnes, vermiform mite and the acneiform lesions(papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts), totally inhibits the formation of acne on skin.