Isoniazid

Isoniazid is an antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycin or aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistance ). To prevent development of resistant tuberculosis bacteria, people with tuberculosis are treated with long courses of combination drug therapy, most commonly isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide.

Isoniazid is the most effective tuberculostatic agent. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycin or aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistance ). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycin or aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistance ). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone.Probably interferes with lipid and nucleic acid metabolism of growing bacteria, resulting in alteration of the bacterial wall. Is tuberculostatic. Readily absorbed after PO and parenteral (IM) administration and widely distributed in body tissues, including cerebrospinal, pleural, and ascitic fluids. Peak plasma concentration: PO, 1-2 hr. t1/2, fast acetylators: 0.5-6 hr; t1/2, slow acetylators: 2-5 hr. Liver and kidney impairment increase these values. Metabolized in liver and excreted primarily in urine.

The metabolism of isoniazid is genetically determined. Clients fall into two groups, depending on the rapidity with which they metabolize isoniazid.

This medicine may cause some serious side effects, including damage to the liver. Liver damage is more likely to occur in patients over 50 years of age. You and your doctor should talk about the good this medicine will do, as well as the risks of taking it.

Chemical Name: Isonicotinyi hydrazine
Molecular formula: C6H7N3O
Molecular weight: 137.14
CAS No.: 54-85-3