Celecoxib is chemically designated as 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3- (trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide and is a diaryl substituted pyrazole. The empirical formula for celecoxib is C17H14F3N3O2S and the molecular weight is 381.38. Celecoxib is used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum growths (polyps) in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It is classified as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID, and should not be taken by anyone allergic to NSAIDs.
Celecoxib belongs to a new generation of NSAIDs that selectively block the action of COX-2. This means that it stops the production of inflammatory prostaglandins, without stopping the production of prostaglandins that protect the stomach and intestines. It therefore reduces pain and inflammation, but is less likely than traditional NSAIDs to cause side effects on the stomach and intestines. Celecoxib is a Cox-2 inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent with fewer gastrointestinal side effects, approved just a year ago for the management of arthritis pain. Celecoxib is similar to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. NSAIDS block specific enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) that are induced by inflamed tissue and also are produced by pre-cancerous polyps in the intestine. Epidemiologic studies have shown that people who regularly take NSAIDS (to treat conditions such as arthritis) have lower rates of colorectal polyps, colorectal cancer, and colorectal cancer-associated mortality. Most NSAIDs inhibit both COX enzymes, and many of these drug can also cause other medical problems like stomach bleeding when taken regularly for long periods of time. The reason for these side effects may be that COX-1 is necessary for healthy mucosal tissues, but COX-2 is not. Celecoxib specifically inhibits only COX-2, and therefore has shown little evidence of causing gastric problems. Celecoxib is already FDA-approved for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat arthritis, pain, menstrual cramps, and colonic polyps. Prostaglandins are chemicals that are important contributors to the inflammation of arthritis that causes the pain, fever, swelling and tenderness. Celecoxib blocks the enzyme that makes prostaglandins (cyclooxygenase 2), resulting in lower concentrations of prostaglandins. As a consequence, inflammation and its accompanying pain, fever, swelling and tenderness are reduced. Celecoxib differs from other NSAIDs in that it causes less inflammation and ulceration of the stomach and intestine (at least with short-term treatment) and does not interfere with the clotting of blood. NSAIDs have been found to prevent the formation and reduce the size of polyps in patients with the genetic disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In FAP, patients develop large numbers of polyps in their colons, and the polyps invariably become malignant. The only cure of FAP requires removal of the entire colon. Celecoxib is approved as an adjunctive (secondary) treatment among patients with FAP. The cramping and pain during menstrual periods is due to prostaglandins, and blocking the production of prostaglandins with celecoxib reduces the cramps and pain.