Furosemide is a loop diuretic drug, meaning that it works on the area of the kidney called Henle’s loop. This drug prevents the absorption of chloride, sodium, potassium and water, leading to an increased volume of urine. This assists the kidneys in removing excessive fluid.
Furosemide is most often used in the treatment of heart failure. It is a potent diuretic drug. The drug is called frusemide in some parts of the world. Furosemide is used to reduce fluid accumulation and prevent further edema from forming. It is primarily used to treat heart failure and pulmonary edema (lung fluid). It is also used to treat some electrolyte imbalances, such as high calcium and high potassium levels, because the diuretic effect improves elimination of these ions. It is indicated in the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and renal disease. It is par- ticularly useful when greater diuretic potential is desired and may be used in the treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other anti hypertensive agents.
Furosemide inhibits the coupled Na+/K+/2Cl- transport system in the luminal membrane of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Thus the loop diuretics reduce the reabsorption of NaCl and also diminish the normal lumen-positive potential that derives from K+ recycling. In paediatric urinary tract imaging this is an essential drug used to stimulate urine production in diuretic renography and has been used to accentuate the appearances of obstruction on an excretory urogram.