Neomycin sulphate belongs to a class of antibiotics known as the aminoglycosides. Neomycin sulphate is bactericidal in action (kills bacteria). It does this by causing the bacteria to produce defective proteins which are essential for their growth. Once the bacteria have been killed, tissues can be repaired by the normal healing process
Neomycin sulphate is an antibiotic, active against many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Staph. aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., H. influenzae, S. typhi, Shigella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is ineffective against fungi and viruses.
Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 0,5-10 micrograms per mL.
Neomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the group of aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides are antibiotics that are highly effective against gram-negative and to a lesser extent gram-positive bacteria. Neomycin, among others, is effective against Enterobacter, Salmonella and Shigella. Neomycin, is not effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa as opposed to Gentamicin, which is. Aminoglycosides are ineffective against fungi and yeast. Neomycin consists of a mixture of Neomycin A, B and C, which differ in the side chains attached to the amino sugars. Neomycin A is a degradation product of Neomycin B and C, and has no antimicrobial activity. Aminoglycosides consist of a central hexose or diaminohexose molecule to which two or more amino sugars are attached by a glycosidic bond. The bactericidal effect of these antibiotics is based on the inhibition of protein synthesis. Neomycin binds to both ribosomal subunits. Attachment to the 30S subunit results in stagnation of the initiation phase during translation. Because of this stagnation elongation can no longer take place and protein synthesis stops. Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. It consists of 78-88 % Neomycin B and 10-16 % Neomycin C. During testing very often real delayed reactions occur after day 4. It can be found as an antibiotic in many medicaments for external use for the treatment of inflammations, e. g. creams, powders, ointments, ear and eye drops as antibiotic for internal use.
The antibiotic inhibits protein synthesis In mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plant cells are therefore generally intolerant to aminoglycosides. The inhibition is based on the similarity between protein synthesis In these cell organelles and that of bacteria, making Kanamycin a toxic agent for eukaryotic cells. Resistance to Neomycin is obtained rapidly. The mechanism through which resistance is built up is attributable mainly to chemical modification of the antibiotic whereby its antimicrobial activity is lost. There is complete cross resistance with Streptomycin, Gentamicin and Kanamycin. The antimicrobial effect of the antibiotic depends on the extracellular pH. Antimicrobial activity decreases significantly at pH levels of 6.5 and lower. The presence of divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the medium also decreases the antimicrobial activity.
Neomycin is effective in vitro against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, in concentrations of 5 to 10 mcg/mL or less. However, it should be noted that certain strains of Streptococci, Pneumococci, Pseudomonas, Clostridia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aerobacter have moderate to marked resistance to neomycin, and that it is not active against viruses and fungi. Neomycin can be used as eye drops (in combination with the antibiotics polymyxin B sulphate and gramicidin) to treat bacterial infections of the eye, such as conjuctivitis.
Synonyms: biosol veterinary, bykomycin, fradiomycin sulfate, lidamycin creme, mycifradin-N, mycaifradin sulfate, mycigient, neobiotic, neofracin, neo-mantle creme, neomix, neomycin sulphate, new france F, otobiotic, quintess-N, USAF CB-19
Molecular formula: C23H46N6O13
CAS No: 1405-10-3