Norfloxacin is an antibiotic in a class of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It fights bacteria in the body. Norfloxacin is used to treat various bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and prostate infections. Norfloxacin differs from non-fluorinated quinolones by having a fluorine atom at the 6 position and a piperazine moiety at the 7 position.
Norfloxacin is usually efficacious for urinary tract infections (curing rates about 90%). Compared to amoxicillin it is a little more efficacious; compared to co-trimoxazole or ciprofloxacin the results are equal. Norfloxacin is particularly suited for complicated and therapy resistant urinary tract infections. As the drug reaches high concentrations in the prostate tissue, it is also suited for the treatment of prostatitis. Like with other drugs, the duration of treatment has to be fairly long (4 weeks).
Numerous enteric infections can be treated with norfloxacin: similarly to e.g. co-trimoxazole or doxycycline, the drug is suitable for the prevention of diarrhea; it is also effective against salmonellosis. Norfloxacin can prevent Gram-negative infections in granulocytopenic patients. In the form of eye drops, norfloxacin is effective against bacterial conjunctivitis and other surface eye infections.
Norfloxacin is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral administration. Norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. Its empirical formula is C16H18FN3O3. Norfloxacin is a white to pale yellow crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 319.34 and a melting point of about 221° C. It is freely soluble in glacial acetic acid, and very slightly soluble in ethanol, methanol and water.
Norfloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid derivative, is an orally absorbed fluoroquinolone antibacterial with a fluorine at position 6 and a piperazine ring at position 7. The antibacterial spectrum of norfloxacin includes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as enteric pathogens. Norfloxacin is also active against both penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant strains of Nisseria gonorrhoeae, but it is less active against Gram positive cocci. As with all fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin's activity against anaerboic bacteria is poor. Norfloxacin exerts its bactericidal effect by inhibiting the A subunit of DNA gyrase which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. Norfloxacin is highly lipid-soluble, and penetrates tissues and cells very rapidly after administration, often achieving tissue concentrations that are several times higher than the concurrent serum levels. It is therefore very suitable for intracellular infections such as those caused by salmonella and shigella. High tissue-fluid to serum concentrations have been measured in bile, kidney parenchyma, and the prostate. Norfloxacin exhibits low (about 14%) protein-binding properties. Following oral administration, 30 to 40 percent of the norfloxacin dose is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Norfloxacin is primarily metabolised by the liver and excreted via the urine.
CAS No. 70458-96-7
Chemical name: 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
Molecular formula: C16H18FN3O3
Molecular weight: 319.3349