Tioconazole is an antifungal medication. It prevents fungus from growing. Tioconazole vaginal is used to treat vaginal candida (yeast) infections. Tioconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent available for intravaginal use. Tioconazole is fungicidal against Candida sp. and is used to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Tioconazole prevents the growth and function of some fungal organisms by interfering with the production of substances needed to preserve the cell membrane. This drug is effective only for infections caused by fungal organisms. It will not work for bacterial or viral infections.
Tioconazole is a member of the imidazole class of antifungal agents. Although the mode of action of tioconazole has not as yet been determined, several studies have demonstrated that the imidazoles inhibit ergosterol synthesis in fungi by blocking C-14 demethylation. As a result, there is an accumulation of C-14 methyl sterol intermediates like langosterol, and a decrease in ergosterol. Langosterol cannot support yeast growth in the absence of ergosterol, and the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis or the accumulation of langosterol may be the primary antifungal mechanism of this class of drugs. At high drug concentrations the imidazoles have been postulated to exert a fungicidal effect by rapid membrane damage of the fungi.
Pharmacokinetics: Tioconazole is administered intravaginally. One dose (applicatorful) of tioconazole 6.5% provides 3 days of in vitro antifungal activity, with vaginal concentrations maintained above the MIC. Systemic absorption after a single intravaginal application in nonpregnant women is negligible.
Mechanism of Action: Tioconazole exerts its effect by disrupting normal fungal cell membrane permeability. Ergosterol is an essential component of the fungal cell membrane. Tioconazole inhibits ergosterol synthesis by interacting with 14-alpha demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary for converting lanosterol to ergosterol. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis results in increased cellular permeability, causing leakage of cellular contents such as phosphorous-containing compounds and potassium. Tioconazole has documented in vitro activity against both albicans and non-albicans Candida species, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, and C. tropicalis.
Action/Kinetics: Antifungal activity thought to be due to alteration of the permeability of the cell membrane of the fungus, causing leakage of essential intracellular compounds. The systemic absorption of the drug in nonpregnant clients is negligible.
Uses: Candida albicans infections of the vulva and vagina. Also effective against Torulopsis glabrata. OTC for recurrent vaginal yeast infections in those who have previously been diagnosed and have the same symptoms again.
Molecular formula: C16H13Cl3N2OS
Molecular weight: 387.71 g/mol
Chemical name: 1-[2-[(2-Chloro-3-thienyl)methoxy]-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) ethyl]-1H-imidazole
Additional name: 1-[2,4-Dichloro-b-[(2-chloro-3-thienyl)-oxy]phenethyl] imidazole
CAS Number: 65899-73-2