Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic antibiotic. This is a generic and international name for the compound that can have numerous brand names, including Cipro. This antibiotic belongs to a wider group called fluoroquinoloness. Ciprofloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase. This enzyme is crucial for spatial conformation of DNA molecules. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than mammalian one.
Ciprofloxacin is used to treat infections of the skin, lungs, airways, bones, and joints caused by susceptible bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also frequently used to treat urinary infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. Ciprofloxacin is effective in treating infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, campylobacter jejuni, and shigella bacteria.
Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is a concentration dependent bactericidal agent. It is structurally related to enrofloxacin, and has a similar spectrum of activity. Both of these antimicrobials have shown activity against some gram positive aerobes and a wide range of gram negative bacilli and cocci, which include Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, and other organisms such as Mycoplasma, Staphylococci and Chlamydia . Due to the fluoroquinolone’s variable activity against most Streptococci, as well as their weak activity against many anaerobic bacteria, they are generally not recommended for use in treating infections where these types of microbes are present. Like enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin is believed to act by inhibiting bacterial DNA-gyrase which prevents DNA supercoiling and DNA synthesis. When taken orally ciprofloxacin is well absorbed, and although the presence of food in the stomach may delay rate it does not seem to effect its absorption capability. Both enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are well distributed throughout the body, and can be found in small concentrations in the cerebral spinal fluid. Ciprofloxacin is a metabolite of enrofloxacin, and like enrofloxacin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic mechanisms, as well as in breast milk. The quinolone class of drugs have been shown to produce erosions of cartilage in weight bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.