Hesperidin (Vitamin P2)
Hesperidin is an important nutrient that works synergistically with Vitamin C to maintain the health of collagen. Sagging and wrinkling of the skin is the consequence of the breakdown of collagen. The flavonoid hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside (glucoside) comprised of the flavanone (a class of flavonoids) hesperitin and the disaccharide rutinose.
Hesperidin is the predominant flavonoid in lemons and oranges. The peel and membranous parts of these fruits have the highest hesperidin concentrations. Therefore, orange juice containing pulp is richer in the flavonoid than that without pulp. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) and tangelos are the richest dietary sources of hesperidin. Hesperidin is classified as a citrus bioflavonoid.
Bioflavonoids such as Quercetin, Rutin, and Hesperidin are vital in their ability to increase the strength of the capillaries (blood vessels) and to regulate their permeability. They assist Vitamin C in keeping collagen, the intercellular "cement" in healthy condition; are essential for the proper absorption and use of vitamin C; prevents Vitamin C from being destroyed in the body by oxidation; beneficial in hypertension; helps hemorrhages and ruptures in the capillaries and connective tissues and builds a protective barrier against infections. Quercetin is a very highly concentrated form of bioflavonoids derived from citrus fruit. A deficiency in these nutrients may result in varicose veins, a tendency to bruise and bleed easily, and/or the appearance of purplish spots on the skin.
Hesperidin, in combination with a flavone glycoside called diosmin, is used in Europe for the treatment of venous insufficiency and hemorrhoids. Hesperidin, rutin and other flavonoids thought to reduce capillary permeability and to have anti-inflammatory action were collectively known as vitamin P. These substances, however, are not vitamins and are no longer referred to, except in older literature, as vitamin P.
Hesperidin has a right-sided cell receptor (as has copper), so medical problems associated with its deficiency, and/or with copper excesses, are invariably right-sided as well. It is not unusual to see hemorrhoids or varicose veins being noticeably worse on one side only. Rutin is inhibited mostly by chromium, and since chromium levels are on average not as high as copper levels, rutin levels are invariably higher than hesperidin levels as long as dietary intake of rutin and hesperidin are similar. Hesperidin, along with other bioflavanoids, can improve the health of capillaries and connective tissues. Because of this, it has been noted to help with bruising, varicose veins, and fragile capillaries. Other benefits include a purported ablility to alleviate hay fever and other such allergies. Some studies suggest bioflavanoids like hesperidin and quercitin do this by inhibiting the release of histamine.
Hesperidin is a solid substance with low solubility in water. It is, however, much more soluble in water than its aglycone hesperetin. Hesperidin's molecular formula is C28H34O15, and its molecular weight is 610.57 daltons. The disaccharide of hesperidin, rutinose, is comprised of the sugars rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose) and glucose. Hesperidin is also known as hesperetin 7-rhamnoglucoside, hesperetin-7-rutinoside and (S)-7-[[6-0-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannop- yranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oxy]-2, 3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one.