Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that supports energy metabolism and biosynthesis of a number of compounds through its coenzyme forms, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin adenine mononucleotide (FMN). Riboflavin is also required for activation and support of activity of vitamin B6, folate, niacin, and vitamin K.
Vitamin B2 - riboflavin is required by the body to use oxygen and the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. Riboflavin is further needed to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), helps to create niacin and assists the adrenal gland. It may be used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration, and growth. It eases watery eye fatigue and may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cataracts. Vitamin B2 is required for the health of the mucus membranes in the digestive tract and helps with the absorption of iron and vitamin B6. Although it is needed for periods of rapid growth, it is also needed when protein intake is high, and is most beneficial to the skin, hair and nails.
Riboflavin is sensitive to destruction by light. Because milk is a primary source of riboflavin, opaque containers or ultraviolet light-blocking materials are used in packaging to preserve the riboflavin content. Riboflavin can also be destroyed in the presence of alkali such as baking soda. As with other B vitamins, riboflavin is lost by milling of grains. To compensate for these losses, white flour is enriched with this vitamin. Riboflavin is not part of the vitamin enrichment mixture added to white rice because the addition of this vitamin imparts a yellowish cast.
Riboflavin is important to energy metabolism (processing nutrients like protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol that have calories to a form of energy that the body can use - ATP), normal eyesight and healthy skin. Foods high in riboflavin are milk, yogurt, cheeses, meat, leafy green vegetables, whole and enriched grains. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin and is easily destroyed by light. Oral contraceptives may cause a riboflavin deficiency as well. Riboflavin is important to both vegetarian and carnivores (meat eaters). If you include the above vegetables and grains in your diet, don't abuse alcohol, you will probably consume sufficient amounts of riboflavin.
Riboflavin is essential for tissue respiration and the generation of energy from the carbohydrates, acids and fats. Riboflavin is vital for normal reproduction, growth, repair and development of body tissues including the skin, hair, nails, connective tissue and immune system. Severe riboflavin deficiency is rare and often occurs with other B vitamin deficiencies. Symptoms include red, swollen, cracked lips, mouth and tongue, aversion to bright light, loss of appetite, weakness, fatigue, depression, anemia, loss of vision, burning and itching of the eyes. Riboflavin's primary functions are as a component of two coenzymes that catalyze many oxidation-reduction reactions. These coenzymes are necessary to make energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
The function of riboflavin is in oxidation/reduction reactions, that is, reactions that involve combining with oxygen or the removing of hydrogen. Working with thiamin, niacin, and panthothenic acid, it oxidizes fat and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide in order to produce energy. This occurs in the Kreb's cycle, which is the major energy pathway of most tissues in the body. Along with helping to produce energy, riboflavin participates in the body's defence system to oxidize toxins and foreign substances so they can be removed from the body. It also assists the enzyme glutathione reductase which replenishes the antioxidant glutathione in the eye, among other places. Studies in China have demonstrated the protective effects of riboflavin and niacin in preventing a common type of cataract. Riboflavin is also vital in the production of steroid hormones by the adrenal glands and is essential for successful reproduction.
The richest sources of riboflavin include organ meats such as liver, kidney and heart. Milk, yeast, cheese, oily fish, eggs and dark green leafy vegetables are also rich sources. Flour and cereals are enriched with riboflavin. Riboflavin is stable when heated but will leach into cooking water. It is easily destroyed by light, and foods stored in clear containers will lose their riboflavin content in a short period of time. Baking soda also destroy riboflavin.
Synonyms: 6,7-dimethyl-9-d-ribitylisoalloxazine, flavaxin, beflavin, 7,8-dimethyl-10-(d-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)riboflavinequinone, hyflavin, lactoflavin, lactoflavine, ribipca, riboderm, riboflavinequinone, vitamin B2, vitamin G
Use: dietary supplement
Molecular formula: C17H20N4O6
CAS No: 83-88-5