Rutin (Vitamin P1)
Rutin is a member of bioflavonoids, a large group of phenolic secondary metabolites of plants that include more than 2,000 different known chemicals. Bioflavonoids such as Quercetin, Rutin, and Hesperidin are important nutrients due to their ability to strengthen and modulate the permeability of the walls of the blood vessels including capillaries.
Rutin is a bioflavonoid that is related to hesperidin. It is a glucoside of Quercetin. The primary source of rutin is buckwheat, but it is also found in a variety of other plants, including eucalyptus leaves, Hawthorn, rose hips, rue, and blue violet leaves. Rutin is an antioxidant with potential use for strengthening the Immune System. It may also contain anti-inflammatory properties. One study showed rutin to be effective in reducing oxidative damage to red blood cells.
Rutin is a solid substance, pale yellow in appearance and only slightly soluble in water. It is, however, much more soluble in water than its aglycone quercetin. Rutin's molecular formula is C27H30O16, its molecular weight is 610.53 daltons. The disaccharide moiety of rutin, rutinose, is comprised of the sugars rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose) and glucose. Many names are used for rutin in the literature. They include rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin. Also, 3, 3', 4', 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavone-3-rutinoside, 3-rhamnosyl-glucosyl quercetin and 3-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oxy]-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one.
Rutin is a phenolic antioxidant and has been demonstrated to scavenge superoxide radicals. Rutin can chelate metal ions, such as ferrous cations. Ferrous cations are involved in the so-called Fenton reaction, which generates reactive oxygen species. Rutin may also modulate the respiratory burst of neutrophils. The in vivo antioxidant activity of rutin is most likely due to its aglycone quercetin, to which it is metabolized following ingestion. Although most studies show rutin to inhibit lipid peroxidation, a few studies do not. Rutin may also help maintain levels of the biological antioxidant reduced glutathione. Importantly, under certain conditions, rutin or its metabolite quercetin may become a pro-oxidant. For example, nitrosation of rutin/ quercetin may produce a pro-oxidant molecule that may have mutagenic potential.
Rutin is known to offer nutritional support to the circulatory systems including the capillaries in eyes. Rutin has proved to be especially helpful in preventing recurrent bleeding caused by weakened blood vessels, and has been used in treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins, helping to prevent blood vessel walls to become fragile. Rutin is safe and effective for: Poor Circulation, High Blood Pressure, Varicose Veins, Chilblains, Capillary Fragility, etc.
Rutin is found in buckwheat grains and plants (but not in other grains). Buckwheat has been cultivated for at least 2,000 years, starting in China, and consumed in China, Korea and Japan for more than thousand years, in the form of buckwheat jelly and buckwheat noodle (soba). Buckwheat has recently been found to be effective in reducing high blood pressure and slowing the aging process. Buckwheat is rich in proteins (12-15%) and essential amino acids such as lysine (5-7%) that are deficient in major cereal crops, and is also abundant in lipids, minerals (iron, phosphorus, and copper), and vitamins (B1 and B2) and rutin. Rutin is found in buckwheat grains and plants (but not in other grains). Buckwheat has become a highly safe and healthy medicinal plant with efficacies for vascular disorders caused by fragile or permeable capillaries. Buckwheat flowers are important honey source in Korea and other Asian countries.
Rutin is not found in other grains such as rice, wheat, etc. or beans, but is contained in great quantity (4-6%) in buckwheat. Rutin strengthens capillaries, helping people recover from arteriosclerosis (the hardening of the arteries) or high blood pressure. Rutin belongs to a group of plant compounds called bioflavonoids that also include the important catechins of green tea and the polyphenols of red wine. Recent studies have shown that the bioflavonoids are powerful antioxidants that fight free radicals. Free radicals are said to be responsible for as much as 90 percent of all the human diseases, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, strokes, senility due to aging, etc.