Vitamin A Palmitate
Vitamin A Palmitate (retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinyl palmitate) is known as a skin "normalizer." It acts as an antikeratinizing agent, helping the skin stay soft and plump. Clinical studies with vitamin A palmitate indicate a significant change in skin composition with increase in collagen, DNA, skin thickness, and elasticity. Vitamin A palmitate's stability is superior to retinol. Vitamin A palmitate is the preferred form of vitamin A because it is possible that RP patients may have problems converting beta carotene into vitamin A.
The activity of vitamin a palmitate in skin may depend on its conversion to retinoic acid. This conversion depends on the enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond in retinul palmitate, and on the skin's ability to ozidse retinol to retinoic acid. Non-specific esterase enzyme activity exists within the skin and it has been demonstrated that skin preparations can convert retinol to retinoic acid.
Retinyl palmitate is the easiest retinoids to formulate topically in the over-the-counter moisturizers. Topical application of retinyl palmitate is a pragmatic strategy for loading the skin with retinol (vitamin A). Cosmetic formulations containing retinyl palmitate are substantially more stable than those containing retinol. Furthermore, retinyl palmitate readily penetrates into the epidermis and dermis. In vitro measurements of retinyl palmitate’s percutaneous absorption indicate that 18% of retinyl palmitate, topically applied in acetone, penetrates human skin within 30 hrs. Percutaneous absorption of retinyl palmitate in currently marketed cosmetic products may be still greater due to the considerable efforts of cosmetics formulators to maximize the effectiveness of products containing retinyl palmitate and retinol. Studies indicate that absorbed retinyl palmitate is readily hydrolyzed to retinol by cutaneous esterases. In addition, skin contains the enzymes required for further metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde and retinoic acid, and some studies have shown that levels of retinoic acid in the skin can increase following topical application of retinyl palmitate or retinol.
Molecular Formula: C36H60O2
Molecular Weight: 524.86
CAS Number: 79-81-2